Christian hymn writers can fuse the biblical and the Indian realities in conglomeration to address an inclusive community. The Christian Bhakti songs in India are a unique musical genre that incorporates Biblical axioms, aspects of human struggles, ethnic idioms, and local values and virtues. They take up ethnic feelings, human anxieties and emotions and other socio-religious aspects. As the NT authors incorporated these elements in their musicology to address a wider audience, the Indian Christians can do the same to make a larger impact.
By Johnson Thomaskutty, PhD.
Department of New Testament
The United Theological College
Ethnomusicology of the NT can be used as a broader discipline in order to facilitate a comparative socio-religious analysis. Timothy Rice defines Ethnomusicology as “the study of why, and how, human beings are musical. This definition positions ethnomusicology among the social sciences, humanities, and biological sciences dedicated to understanding the nature of the human species in all its biological, social, cultural, and artistic diversity.” Rice further argues that the word ‘musical’ does not simply refer to musical talent or ability, but it is an inclusive term as it appreciates human talents “to create, perform, organize cognitively, react physically and emotionally to, and interpret the meanings of humanly organized sounds.” Musicality is one of the common human characteristics and a sense that makes human living rhythmical and poetical in the world. ‘Ethnomusicology’ is the study (logos) of the people of the same nation, tribe, or race (ethnos), in relation to the music (mousikeē) culture. Within the scope of a comparative analysis, we shall analyze the ethnic and contextual convergence of the NT and the Indian musicology.
The primary sources of information about music in early Christianity are the canonical and apocryphal books of the NT, the writings of the Church Fathers and gnostic literature. In addition, church histories, liturgical prescriptions, items of church legislation and accounts of liturgies are important. The NT writings enable us to perceive the musical and rhythmical aspects of the early Christian community. The literary nature and genre of the four canonical gospels reflect various features of the early Christian lectionaries. It is believed that the origin of the gospels has been the idea that they were fashioned to conform to the pattern of Jewish lectionaries. P. Carrington proposed that the gospels were composed to provide an arrangement for use in public worship. In his analysis of the Gospel of Mark, he found out that looking at the Sabbaths the author arranged the material with prose and hymns. As the Indian mind is poetical and at the same time musical, a reader of the NT writings can relate the spiritual and mystical aspects of Christian traditions to her/his own contextual realities. A. Guilding considered that John’s Gospel is following a three-year Jewish cycle of readings. The NT writings incorporate some of the early Christian poems, poetical styles, rhythmical arrangements, and musical compositions. The elevated styles like synonymous parallelism (Matt 10:24), antithetical parallelism (Luke 6:41), and synthetic (Luke 9:23) and causal (Matt 6:7) forms are parts of Jesus’ speech. Jesus also uses some of the Hebrew poetical styles in his speech in Luke 7:31-32.
NT musicology is derived out of the ethnic and cultural realities of the common people. This is also true with the religious traditions in India. The four canticles of Luke’s Gospel are considered as the first Christmas songs: Mary’s Magnificat (1:46-55); Zechariah’s Benedictus (1:68-79); Angelic Gloria Excelsis Deo (2:14); and Simeon’s Nunc Dimittis (2:29-32). These songs reflect some of the characteristics of people’s piety within the poor sections of the Jewish society. Mary as a woman who was suppressed in the society rejoices in the Lord. She realizes that God has looked at on her lowliness. A transfer of order is obvious when the elevated are put down and the lowly are lifted up (1:46-55). People’s messianic hope is reflected through these songs as Mary’s soul magnifies the arrival of the Savior and Zechariah recognizes the help and freedom through Jesus. When the Jews persevered under the Roman imperial power and the people were hopeful about the arrival of the Messiah, these songs reflect some of the ground realities. In the Indian context, people live in a culture where religious piety and social afflictions are merged together that makes them to sing songs of sorrow and joyfulness with devoutness.
The melodious and rhythmical aspects of the Gospel narratives reflect their universalistic nature. Religious masterpieces in India such as Ramayana and Mahabharata are written in poetical style. Just like Mary, Zechariah, the angelic beings, and Simeon were praising God through the means of hymnody, Indian art forms like Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Kuchipudi, Bharatnatyam, Kathak, Manipuri and Odissi are connected to religious bhakti. Some of the classical music genres like Hindustani, Rajasthani, Punjabi, and Karnatic are well connected to the socio-religious ethos and pathos of the Indian people. Christian seminaries and churches incorporate musical art forms of India like Bhajan, Keerthanas, Qawwali, Ghazal, Thumri, Khayal, and others in the worship services. Merging together of the NT themes with the Indian musical art forms facilitate indigenization of the Christian worship. As Jesus used poetical language through the means of various metaphors and imageries, Hindu deities like Kali, Siva, Saraswati, and Krishna are identified through the means of musical instruments and varied dance forms. As music is part and parcel of the Indian bhakti, it can also be used in a Christian way.
John begins his Gospel with a rhythmical responsive and chiastic style. It is often viewed that parts of the prologue (1:1-18) appear to come from an early Christian hymn, or at least from a creedal or confessional document. Chiastic style is a form of ancient poetry (from the Greek letter ‘chi’) that places parallel words or phrases at the top and bottom of the passage. John 1:1-18 is often considered as a quasi-poem. It demonstrates some features of an artful tapestry and a linguistically flavored masterpiece. John’s Logos Hymn reflects the ideals and the realities of the First Century world. As one of the philosophical hubs of the first century, the Ephesian context is well attached to the concept of Logos. At the same time, the narrator incorporates one of the themes of creation from the Jewish and the Old Testament thought-world (Gen 1:1). Rather than using a historical and descriptive style, John employs a universalistic style. While history was considered more to do with particulars, poetic style was used as a universalistic form. As the Hindu scriptures are mostly written in poetic style, the universalistic aspects are embedded therein. John also incorporates the ethnic and cultural aspects of the Jewish, Ephesian and the extended Greco-Roman contexts. John’s hymn can be understood as one of the best examples of early Christian folklore music. The poem is derived out of the hard realities of the people.
Paul uses rhythmical style in its best in most of his epistles. His understanding of some of the secular writers like poet Cleanthes (Acts 17:28), Athenian dramatist Menander (I Cor 15:33), and some of the Hebrew poetic styles (Eph 5:14; I Tim 3:16) is demonstrable in his letters. As Paul uses the quotes and poems of non-Christian authors, an Indian interpreter of the NT can see several similarities between the Biblical thoughts and the spiritual admonishments of Indian authors like Tulsidas and Surdas. Even he attempts to make use of his own originality through flashes of poetic inspiration and utterance (Rom 8:31-37). The hymn of Paul in I Cor 13 is considered as a love hymn. It is derived out of the contextual realities of the Corinthian people. Aphrodite, the deity of love, was one of the main attractions of the city of Corinth. The hymn here is considered as a pre-Pauline composition that the author reorganizes and quotes to address the situation. The hymn in Eph 2:14-16 emphasizes how the cross of Christ reconciles all. While there was wide disunity in the Ephesian church context, Paul recites this hymn in order to foreground the unity that Christ brings through the cross. Though there are dissentions among scholars concerning the Pauline authorship of Ephesians, there is no disagreement to accept it as an epistle from the extended Pauline school. Phil 2:5-11 is a well-known Christological hymn incorporated within the epistolary framework of the Letter to the Philippians. Paul Anderson considers Philippians 2:5-11 as an exemplary hymn. It would have been an early Christian hymn used in liturgy that Paul incorporates in his letter. Paul emphasizes that the Christian community in Philippi to be serving the group following the model of Jesus.
The language of worship and prayer and the elevated method of style of the Letter to the Ephesians reveal its rhythmical development. The early church traditions are part and parcel of the letter—hymns, creeds, liturgical material and the household codes. The first half of Ephesians is well known for its lofty and exalted style. In the letter half, the author makes use of the style of worship, prayer and doxology. Christian musicians in India use lofty and elevated style in their professional engagements. The letter begins with an elegantly composed eulogy (berakah) praising God for the election and redemption of his people (Eph 1:13-14). While interpreting Eph 6:10-17, Paul Anderson comments, “As an allegory, or an extended set of metaphors, one can imagine each of these features being the subject of practical instruction, encouraging spiritual preparedness in the Christian walk.” A Christian musician in India can adopt the surrounding realities in her/his musicology as contextual reverberations.
Col 1:15-20 is commonly considered as yet another Christological hymn. While Colossian heresy was prevalent, Paul reiterates the preeminence of Christ. In the poem, the focus is on the divine-human reconciliation through the initiative of Christ. The hymn reflects the cross-cultural and ethnic aspects of the Colossian community. The poem is formed of two parallel strophes (vv. 15-18a and 18b-20). The first strophe delineates Christ as the image of God and the firstborn of all creation, that is, the agent of creation. The second strophe delineates Christ as the first principle of reality and the first born from dead. Similar ideas like Brahma as creator and the post-Vedic equivalent of Brahma called Prajapati are praised in the Hindu scriptures. As these Christological hymns delineate the ethnic and contextual realities, Christian ethnic music in India can be used as a genre to address a wider audience.
Readings from the epics are significant component parts during marriages, deaths and bereavements, and other Hindu events. The Christological hymns of the New Testament persuade many lyricists to compose hymns and music in an Indian way with indigenous aspects. Christian hymn writers can fuse the biblical and the Indian realities in conglomeration to address an inclusive community. The Christian Bhakti songs in India are a unique musical genre that incorporates Biblical axioms, aspects of human struggles, ethnic idioms, and local values and virtues. They take up ethnic feelings, human anxieties and emotions and other socio-religious aspects. As the NT authors incorporated these elements in their musicology to address a wider audience, the Indian Christians can do the same to make a larger impact.
Heb 1:1-4 is written in a musical and poetical style called alliteration. The author brings to the foreground an elevated style with polumerōs, polutropōs, palai, patrasin, and prophētais begin with the Greek letter Pi. The style of alliteration was widely used in the Greco-Roman writings. Alliteration is a style of some of the Christian preachers and musicians in India. They persuade the audience in a unique manner. The Book of Revelation reflects some of the early Christian hymnology and the pattern of worship at several narrative junctures (4:8b, 11; 5:9-10, 12-13; 7:10, 12; and the like). In Revelation, the glory of the lamb is reflected in the context of emperor worship and persecution developed against the Christian communities. The ethnic realities, socio-political aspects, and cultural realities are amply demonstrated through these early Christian songs. Similarly, most of the Indian Christian songs are derived out of the hard realities of life.
In I Tim 3:16, a beautifully composed poem is incorporated. The text begins with a relative clause that has been woven into the syntax of the surrounding prose discourse. This is one of the standard features of Greek poetry. A rhythmical pattern is obvious here, with six lines of parallel passive verbs followed by en and dative constructions: thē + en + dative. These features demonstrate signature of the Greco-Roman poetry. The faith confession reflected in the poem is derived out of the core realities of the minority Christian communities. The confession and the hymnal language reflect their belief, hope, fear, and struggles in an antagonistic context. In II Tim 2:11-13, we see four conditional statements are arranged in a hymnal fashion. The hymn in Titus 3:4-7 focuses on the saving communal bath. I Pet 3:18-22, which Burton L. Mack calls a ‘Christ-hymn,’ is a genre that became popular among early Christians. I John 4:7-21 is a discourse on love very much in the style of Hebrew poetry. Thus, the NT writings bring to the foreground some of their imaginative vision, emotion, and poetic expressions in a convincing manner.
The early Church Fathers incorporated in their writings some of the already existent Christian lyrics and musical aspects. A good number of the early church traditions are preserved in the form of lectionaries and musical compositions. A prime example is the church order known as the Apostolic Constitutions. This work, in eight books, is a late fourth-century compilation of substantial parts of other church orders: the Didache (early second century), the Didaskalia Apostolorum (early third century), and the Apostolic Tradition. Some of them included the early Christian prosody, hymnody, and musical aspects in closer connectivity with the Sitz im Leben of the people. The first hint of the polemic against pagan music appeared in the work of the late second-century converted rhetorician Tatian. From his time onward the polemic grew up with Latin African Fathers like Tertullian and Arnobius, and became a common place among the major figures of the fourth century like John Chrysostom, Ambrose and Augustine. Musical and poetical styles were employed to defend the Christian position and as a response to the attacks on Christianity. Musical and hymnal aspects were consistently used in Christian worship, apologetics and pedagogy by fusing the Biblical themes and the ethnic realities.
There is a reference by Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History IV, xviii, 5), repeated by Jerome (De uiris illustribus 23), to a lost work of Justin Martyr entitled Psalter, the Greek term for clerical cantor. Justin as an apologist made use of the style of Psalter in his works such as Apology (1:13; 1:67) and Dialogue with Trypho (2; 106). Writings of Athenagoras (c. 175) and Theophilus (later second century), and other literary works like Odes of Solomon (xiv.7-8; xvi.1-2), Sibylline Oracles (viii.113-121; viii. 487-500) and The Letter of Pliny (x.xcvi) mention concerning Christian use of music and psalmody. Meanwhile, it is important to state that Clement of Alexandria (ca. 150-215 CE) portrayed Jesus as a “New Song.” In the Church Fathers’ traditions music and hymnody were developed by integrating the oral Christian traditions and the written ideas in closer relationship with the ethnic and contextual realities of the church and the society.
In the biblical and the Indian communities, ethnic and cultural realities are given significance. The Indian church should emphasize ethnomusicology as one of the major priorities in her liturgy and worship. The majority community of the Indian church called the Dalits can incorporate drum beating and other cultural practices as important elements in their ecclesial anthem. The Tribal realities of the North-Eastern Indian states pay much significance to folkdance and music. Ethnomusicology derived out of the life experiences, culture, clan, tribe, and tradition is part and parcel of their daily living. They practice bamboo dance, community music, dance around the fire, and other cultural and musical artifacts during the festival seasons. The Hornbill Festival of Nagaland stays as a colorful mixture of dances and melodious music. A merge of biblical with that of the Indian musicology helps us to form a new genre that can foster Christian witness, mission, and evangelism in an indigenous way. The examples from the early Christian ethnic contexts can be aligned within the worship patterns in India.
The Adivasi communities in different parts of India, especially of Rajasthan, Karnataka, Odisha, West Bengal and Maharashtra, are fond of lovely music. Through music and dance, the ethnic communities express their joys and sorrows, hopes and devotion, and anxieties and sufferings. As the early Christian community expressed their hopes, sorrows, sufferings, and anxieties through ethnomusicology, a merge of Biblical and Indian music can introduce a new paradigm in the contemporary context. Music is the language of all the people in all the times. Music can move people’s hearts and minds and thus can transform the culture. A society without music is barren and flavorless. Music is ingrained in the cultural realities of the people and it has power to liberate humanity. The early Christian communities practiced music with aptitude and rhythm, meter and style, and other aspects. In the current context, Christian worship can include these elements to transform the communities in India.
Based on the above aspects concerning the NT ethnomusicology, a modern Indian reader can employ the following interpretative dynamisms into consideration: first, crossing the traditional boundaries for crosspollination and cross-fertilization of the contextual aspects beyond the time and the space realities; second, creating contextual and ideological constellations in stylistic aspects, thematic development, plot structures, and point of views between the NT and the Indian ethnomusicologies and literary aspects; third, building dialogical relationships between the universalistic, inter-religious and cross-cultural aspects of the NT and the Indian concerns; and fourth, rhetorizing the discourse toward a “third space” by interlocking the two world views beyond the parochial perspectives. A re-interpretation of the NT ethnomusicology by taking the Indian conceptual and ideological aspects is a possibility. The Indian church can adopt a new idiom in shaping its musicology by considering the ethnic and cultural aspects of the NT and the Indian thought-worlds.
 Timothy Rice, Ethnomusicology: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 1.
 Rice, Ethnomusicology, 1.
 Dutch Musicologist Jaap Kunst (1981-1960) first published the word ‘ethno-musicology’ in 1950 in a small book called Musicologia: A Study of the Nature of Ethno-musicology, Its Problems, Methods, and Representative Personalities. See Rice, Ethnomusicology, 3.
 John Arthur Smith, Music in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2011), 23.
 James McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 12-10. Robert J. Karris classifies the NT music into the following categories: (1) Lukan canticles; (2) hymns in the Apocalypse; (3) Jewish-Christian fragments and ejaculations (’Amen, Hallelujah, Hosa’na, Marana tha, ’Abba); (4) distinctively Christian forms: [a] sacramental (Eph 5:14; Tit 3:4-7; Rom 6:1-11; Eph 2:19-22); [b] meditative (Eph 1:3-14; Rom 8:31-39; I Cor 13); [c] confessional (I Tim 6:11-16; II Tim 2:11-13); and [d] Christological (Heb 1:3; Col 1:15-20; I Tim 3:16; John 1:1-14; I Pet 1:18-21; 2:21-25; 3:18-21; Phil 2:6-11). See Robert J. Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1996), 15.
 The Primitive Christian Calendar (1952); cf. Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction, Revised Edition (Leicester: Apollos, 1961/1990), 18. The theory was severely criticised by C. F. Evans, JTS 14 (1963), 140-146.
 The Fourth Gospel and Jewish Worship (1960); cf. Guthrie, New Testament Introduction, 18.
 For more details about literary devises, see David W. Wead, The Literary Devises in John’s Gospel (Eugene: Wipf & Stiock, 2018).
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 12.
 John A. Martin, “Luke,” The Bible Knowledge Commentary: NT (Hyderabad: Authentic, 1983/2004), 206.
 Martin, “Luke,” The Bible Knowledge Commentary: NT, 206-207.
 Johnson Thomaskutty, “Universalistic Linguistic and Literary Style of the Fourth Gospel,” The Gospel of John: A Universalistic Reading (New Delhi: Christian World Imprints, 2020), 3-14.
 Britannica: “Ramayana, (Sanskrit: ‘Rama’s Journey’) shorter of the two great epic poems of India, the other being the Mahabharata (‘Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty’). The Ramayana was composed in Sanskrit, probably not before 300 BCE, by the poet Valmiki and in its present form consists of some 24,000 couplets divided into seven books.” See https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ramayana-Indian-epic, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 See more details: https://www.britannica.com/list/6-classical-dances-of-india, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 For example, the Hindustani music has variety of sub-genres like Dhrupad, Khayal, Tarana style, Thumri, Tappa, Ghazal, Gharanas, and others. See https://www.drishtiias.com/to-the-points/paper1/hindustani-music-1.
 See https://www.missionfrontiers.org/issue/article/indigenized-christian-worship-in-india, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 https://www.missionfrontiers.org/issue/article/indigenized-christian-worship-in-india, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 A “chiasm” describes the conscious shaping of a passage according to an “X” shape (the Greek letter “chi” is X-shaped, chiasm). Johnson Thomaskutty, The Gospel of John: A Universalistic Reading, Biblical Hermeneutics Rediscovered 25 (Delhi: Christian World Imprints, 2020), 44.
 Thomaskutty, The Gospel of John: A Universalistic Reading, 37-51.
 There are some similarities between the Johannine Logos and the Hindu concept of Om/Aum. The divine sound Om is derived out of three sounds A, U, M, that represent three Vedas of Hinduism and the trimurti of Brahman (‘a’), Vishnu (‘u’), and Shiva (‘m’). In the Upanishads, Om is considered as the primordial sound (i.e., Adisabda) and a symbol of true existence. See Jey J. Kanagaraj, The Gospel of John: A Commentary (Secunderabad: OM Books, 2005), 39-41.
 Guthrie, NT Introduction, 248-249.
 Thomaskutty, The Gospel of John: A Universalistic Reading, 37-51.
 Craig A. Evans identified several parallels between Paul’s speeches in Acts and non-Jewish sources. See Craig A. Evans, “Paul and the Pagans,” Paul: Jew, Greek, and Roman (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2008), 117-139, esp. 126; also see Babu Immanuel, Acts of the Apostles: An Exegetical and Contextual Commentary, India Commentary on the New Testament (Bangalore: Primalogue, 2016), 194-195.
 Jan Lambrecht says that, “In vv. 33-34 the Corinthians are addressed in the second person plural. The parenetic tone is sharp and polemical. In v. 33b a sentence of the Attic poet Menander is quoted.” See Jan Lambrecht, “I Corinthians,” The International Bible Commentary (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1998), 1704.
 Margaret Y. MacDonald, “Ephesians,” The International Bible Commentary (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1998), 1756.
 Tulsidas (1543-1623), an Indian Vaishnavite poet whose principal work was Ramcharitmanas, which expresses the religious sentiments of bhakti (‘loving devotion’) to Rama.
 A sixteenth century blind Hindu devotional poet and singer, who was known for his lyrics written in praise of Krishna.
 Jean-Noël Aletti states that “These verses (31-39) contain the two principal components of a peroration or peroratio: amplification (here with a pathetic character) and recapitulation (summary of the salient points of the argument).” Jean-Noël Aletti, “Romans,” The International Bible Commentary (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1998), 1662.
 See Lambrecht, “I Corinthians,” 1697-1699. Indian Indian context, Osho Rajneesh fused the themes like love, sex, and devotion (bhakti). See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705694/, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 92-111.
 Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 42-62.
 Paul N. Anderson, From Crisis to Christ: A Contextual Introduction to the New Testament (Nashville: Abingdon, 2014), 314-315.
 C. E. Arnold, “Ephesians, Letter to the,” Dictionary of Paul and His Letters (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1993), 238-249, esp. 238-240.
 Arnold, “Ephesians, Letter to the,” 238-240.
 Anderson, From Crisis to Christ, 268.
 Brian Wintle, Ephesians: A Pastoral and Contextual Commentary (UK: Global Langham, 2020), 144-158.
 Peter T. O’Brien, “Colossians, Letter to the,” Dictionary of Paul and His Letters (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1993), 147-153, esp. 152.
 Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 63-91.
 O’Brien, “Colossians, Letter to the,” 152.
 See https://www.worldhistory.org/Brahma/, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 O’Brien, “Colossians, Letter to the,” 152.
 For example, the music forms like Bhajan, Keerthanas, Qawwali, Ghazal, Thumri, Khayal, and others.
 One of the modern examples is Sadhu Kochukunju Upadeshi who composed many devotional Christian songs out of the socio-religious and contextual realities of his time in Kerala. See https://www.thehindu.com/entertainment/music/father-john-samuel-hopes-to-keep-sadhu-kochukunju-upadesis-devotional-songs-alive/article22606939.ece, accessed on May 25, 2021.
 B. Varghese, “Hebrews,” South Asia Bible Commentary (Udaipur: Open Door Publications, 2015), 1710-1711.
 Ramesh Khatry, “Revelation,” South Asia Bible Commentary (Udaipur: Open Door Publications, 2015), 1771-1806.
 Khatry, “Revelation,” 1771-1806.
 Though there are dissentions among the scholars about the authorship of this epistle, still they are accepted as documents from the Pauline school.
 Hans-Hartmut Schroeder, “I Timothy,” The International Bible Commentary (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1998), 1814-1815.
 Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 112-126.
 Enrique Nardoni says, “In this regard Paul quotes what is probably an early Christian hymn that says that union with Jesus’ suffering will assure our partaking in his glory.” Enrique Nardoni, “II Timothy,” The International Bible Commentary (Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 1998), 1823. Also see Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 158-172.
 Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 127-141.
 Who Wrote the New Testament, 91; also see Karris, A Symphony of New Testament Hymns, 142-157.
 Gilbert Soo Hoo, 1, 2, 3 John: A Pastoral and Contextual Commentary (UK: Global Langham, 2016), 98-113.
 See https://ancientchurchorders.wordpress.com/category/anything-else/apostolic-tradition/, accessed on June 22, 2021.
 James McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 2.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 20.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 20-21.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 22.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 23.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 23-24.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 25-26.
 McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 26-27.
 Smith, Music in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 26. See Charles H. Cosgrove, “Clement of Alexandria and Early Christian Music,” Journal of Early Christian Studies 14/3 (2006): 255-282; Hugh Francis Blunt, The New Song: Thoughts on the Beatitudes (Catholic Literary Guild, 1941), 1.
Thanks, Jeewan, for your…
Thanks, Jeewan, for your interest in this article.